point of care ultrasound for medical students

Rapid Ultrasound in Shock and Hypotension

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Hypotension is a high-risk sign which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rate. The differential diagnosis for hypotension is broad and the treatment depends on the underlying etiology. In most cases of hypotension, patients present with limited history and physical examination may be inaccurate making the management of the condition a great challenge for emergency physicians.

The use of POCUS in undifferentiated hypotension has been shown to help correctly and rapidly identify the etiology and therefore initiate the appropriate management. Since 2001, there are many protocols published describing a systematic approach to the use of POCUS in undifferentiated hypotension. Table summarizes the components of these protocols.

In this course, we will focus on the Rapid Ultrasound in Shock and Hypotension (RUSH) protocol.

This course aims to provide the necessary information on ultrasonography, its use in a hypotensive patient, and to prepare you for a RUSH practice session.

The course content is prepared and curated from iEM Education chapters, iEM image and video archives, and various FOAMed resources.

At the end of this course, you will be able to;

  • Describe the basics of ultrasound (terminology, knobology, image acquisition, artifacts, etc.)
  • Describe indications of RUSH protocol
  • Describe patient and machine preparations
  • Describe ultrasound examination views
  • Recognize normal anatomical structures
  • Recognize abnormal findings
  • Feel confident to take a practical session for RUSH protocol

Who can get benefit from this course?

  • Junior and senior medical students (course specifically designed for these groups)
  • Interns/Junior emergency medicine residents/registrars


The candidates who successfully pass final summative assessment of the course will be provided course completion certificate.

RUSH Course Content Contributors

Rasha Buhumaid, MD, FACEP
Rasha Buhumaid, MD, FACEP

Rasha Buhumaid M.D. is an assistant professor at the Muhammed Bin Rashed University College of Medicine. She is a consultant in Emergency Medicine, General Secretary of Emirates Society of Emergency Medicine, and Co-founder – Ultrasound Section Emirates Society of Emergency Medicine. She is the RUSH protocol chapter author in iEM Education Project 2018 EM Clerkship eBook.

Toh Hong Chuen, MD
Toh Hong Chuen, MD

Hong Chuen is an Emergency Physician at KTPH. He is a member of the EM Residency Advisory Committee and is appointed by Ministry of Health (MOH) as a National Examiner in EM. Under the Ministry’s Human Manpower Development Programme, he pursued his passion in Emergency Ultrasound at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City, as an international fellow from 2010-2011. He is a board-certified diagnostic medical sonographer with ARDMS. Hong Chuen has actively participated in the development and training of the Emergency Ultrasound in Singapore. He has conducted ultrasound courses and lectured in this field on numerous occasions, both locally and overseas, including South Korea, Hong Kong, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey and India. He is currently the Program Director of AACES. He is the author of Blue Protocol chapter in iEM Education Project 2018 EM Clerkship eBook.


Ashley Bean, M.D., an associate professor in the UAMS College of Medicine’s Department of Emergency Medicine, was honored by the American Academy of Emergency Medicine for her dedication to global education and improving the quality of emergency and acute care globally for more than a decade. She is the eFAST chapter author in iEM Education Project 2018 EM Clerkship eBook.

Arif Alper Cevik, MD, FEMAT, FIFEM
Arif Alper Cevik, MD, FEMAT, FIFEM

Arif Alper Cevik, M.D. is an emergency medicine academician at the United Arab Emirates University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, board member of Asian Society for Emergency Medicine, the founder and director of the International Emergency Medicine Education Project, and co-editor of the iEM Education Project 2018 EM Clerkship eBook.

Fikri M. Abu-Zidan, MD
Fikri M. Abu-Zidan, MD

Professor Fikri Abu-Zidan has made major contributions to trauma management, ultrasound, education and research in Kuwait, Sweden, New Zealand, Australia, and UAE.  He contributed to more than 360 publications, presented more than 600 invited lectures and scientific abstracts, and received more than 25 national and international awards for his activities.


Please note that your basic activity data are collected anonymously to improve course delivery, student experience, or educational research purposes. By enrolling in the course, you agree to these terms. The more details about the TERMS OF USE of this resource can be found here.